Nonintentional Versus Intentional ESP

Some researchers of extrasensory perception have theorized that we all use ESP to protect ourselves but at an unconscious level. The concept, essentially, is that ESP looks like luck to most of us. The current study examined non-intentional ESP compared with the intentional use of ESP.


The current study found that participants in the non-intentional ESP task overall scored better than chance, while the intentional ESP participants scored worse than chance. However, neither group achieved a score that was high or low enough to be a reliable finding. Contrary to previous research in ESP these researchers did not find any relationship between participant’s creativity or open-mindedness and their ESP-task performance.

Although many previous studies have found reliable findings both with intentional and nonintentional ESP tasks, it is a point of scientific research to publish findings that are not successful so that an accurate record of research can be maintained. Parapsychology is particularly good with publishing significant and non-significant research due to the misunderstandings and prejudice that the field suffers from.


Luke, D., & Zychowicz, K. (2013). Comparison of outcomes with nonintentional and intentional precognition tasks. Journal of Parapsychology, 78, 223-234.

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