Modern Physical Mediums in Germany: Part II

In our previous Paranormal Facts, we reported a paper that examines the physical mediumship of Kai Mugge in Germany. Kai under various degrees of control has produced anomalous lights, the production of ectoplasm, floating tables, and the teleportation of objects. However, in this summary and the previous, both authors agree that some of the anomalous lights and the production of ectoplasm were likely due to trickery.


An expert in historical mediumship, Stephen Braude, reminds the readers in his article that some very famous mediums also performed trickery. Yet, these mediums still produced unexplainable phenomena, such as levitating heavy tables, while all parts of their body were being controlled. Braude makes the fair statement that any medium who performs regularly can be tempted to engage in trickery to meet the expectations of their audience.


That is not to say that Braude denies the trickery of Mugge. Details of the article show that Mugge all but confessed to some of his trickery. However, Braude also states that in his own sessions with Mugge, good controls were used, and anomalous lights, levitation, and the teleportation of a piece of copper, did not appear to have a rational explanation.


So what is the truth behind this modern mediumship? Braude might suggest that some of Mugge’s phenomena may well be anomalous, but other phenomena may well be trickery. Historically, this is not the first time that mediums have baffled parapsychologists and stage magicians with some phenomena, while occasionally using trickery in others.




Braude, S. (2014). Investigations of the Felix Experimental Group: 2010-2013. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 28, 285-343.

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